CASE 1 : VIRTUAL WATER HYDROPOLITICS.
POWER –BALANCE SHIFT IN
THE NILE BASIN
•foreign directinvestments in water and land in Ethiopia and Sudan, dam building plans, devoted to irrigation for crop-export
( see Cascao ,2013)
•Infrastructure potential was needed in order to «start» a crop-export, therefore, a virtual water flow ( or ' virtual river')
•Power-balance shift among the co-riparian states happened because of a virtual –water flow creation.
CASE 2 : THE DISI AQUIFER BETWEEN JORDAN AND SAUDI ARABIA - FROM VIRTUAL TO NON-VIRTUAL WATER
•Disi is an emblematic case of both physical contiguity ( with Saudi Arabia) and virtual water river interaction with a water body. In this case, a virtual water flow was created in the '80s , using a shared aquifer. In July 2013 the agro-business production for export has been stopped and the water has been diverted to supply mainly domestic use in the Greater Amman area. There is no bilateral treaty between Jordan and Saudi Arabia over the Disi water. However, due to the previous existence of the virtual water flow, and, therefore, the existence of a a material exploitation of the aquifer since 30 years, Jordan will be able to acquire a certain "right to use" that water, despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has been exploiting the aquifer earlier and in greater quantities.